Features of Indian Agriculture.
After observing and analyzing the Indian agriculture system in the economy, many useful and important facts are visible in it. Therefore, the main features of Indian agriculture can be explained in the following form-
1. Means of livelihood of most of the population
According to census data, 64.8% of the population derives their livelihood from agriculture, in which 38.7% earn their livelihood as cultivators and 26.1% as laborers. In this way, most of the population gets their livelihood in the form of laborers and farmers. Such a large population does not get employment in any other sector.
2. Dominance of food grain crops
In Indian agriculture , 69-8% part is grown on the land in the form of food crops and 32-2% part is in the form of commercial crops. That’s why the economic benefit to Indian farmers is less.
3. Labor intensive in Indian agriculture
More laborers are needed when it is time to harvest the crop. Due to non-availability of labourers, the crop starts falling in the fields itself, while in foreign countries modern machine harvester is used, due to which laborers are not required in harvesting. In the Indian agricultural system, there is a high requirement of labor at every level.
4. Small size of agriculture holding
A farmer with one bigha of land tries to plow the field with the plow because he neither has the money nor does he need a tractor to buy a tractor.
5. Limited thinking of farmers
In India, the farmer does agriculture for the purpose of earning his livelihood. As a result, he does not use various methods and techniques of farming.
6. Employment of limited days
In the agricultural system, agricultural laborers get limited day’s employment. When the farmer’s fields are vacant, then the farmers and laborers do not get employment.
7. Low agricultural productivity
Due to low agricultural productivity, fertilizers are used in the field of Indian agriculture in the form of indigenous fertilizers, while chemical fertilizers increase the production capacity.
8. Dependence on monsoon
The productivity of Indian agriculture depends on the monsoon. That’s why Indian agriculture is also called monsoon gamble. Only about 30% of India’s area is irrigated, while 70% of the area depends on monsoon rains.