Biotechnology General Introduction


Biotechnology General Introduction:- Biotechnology is the manufacture of useful products for human welfare by using microorganisms, animals, plants, their cells, components and biological processes taking place in them.

Biotechnology is being used in human civilization since ancient times, such as the production of beer and wine using yeast.

Biotechnology is classified into two parts –

 (1) Traditional Biotechnology

(2) Modern Biotechnology.

  • Plant Tissue Culture, Animal Tissue Culture, Plant and Animal Bioengineering, DNA The study of nanotechnology, technology etc. is done under modern biotechnology, whereas biological processes related to bio control and fermentation of foods are studied under traditional biotechnology.
  • Such a combination of biological substances that converts chemical and olfactory sensations into electrical signals is called a biosensor.
  • PA First DNA by Fodor Chip was developed.
  • A bio film is an aggregate of microbial cells that adhere to the surface of water.
  • The National Board of Biotechnology was established in 1982 by the Government of India for the promotion of biotechnology.

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Important Questions

By what other names are Biochips known as DNA?

Chip, DNA DNA Microarray

Who produced single-clone antibody by hybridoma technique?

By George Kohler and Cesar Milstein (1975).

Who discovered penicillin?

Alexander Fleming.

Restriction endonuclease enzyme was discovered by Hamilton O.

Smith, by Thomas Kelly and Kent Wilcox (in 1970)

Which scientist first used the term ‘Biotechnology’?

Hungarian agricultural engineer Karl Ereki (1919).

Who first used the term genetic engineering?

Jack Williamsom (he used this term in his novel ‘Dragon’s Island’)

By whom was the first complete gene synthesis done?

By Hargovind Khurana and colleagues.

Who developed the sheep clone Dolly?

Ian Wilmut and colleagues.

Who was the first to successfully use gene therapy in the treatment of leukemia?

Brahs and Qasim.

Who discovered the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?

Kary B. Mullis.

First the DNA Who created the gene chip (Biochip)?

Stephen P. a . Fodor and colleagues (1991).

Who discovered bacteriophage / phage / bacterial virus?

Frederick W. Wart.

When was the human genome sequencing completed?

In 2003.

When was the first genome mapping of rice completed?

In 2001.

What is studied under modern biotechnology?

Recombinant DNA. One of the areas related to clone immunization technology and genetics engineering.

Mention the areas of traditional biotechnology.

  • Areas related to biological control and fermentation of foods. Write the definition of EPS.
  • Extracellular polymer substances

When were NBTB (National Biotechnology Board) and DBT (Department of Biotechnology) established?

in 1982 and 1986 respectively.

Write the word expansion of NBPGR.

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources

Where is CIMAP (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants) located?

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants located in Lucknow?

Where is the Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI) located?

in Trivandrum.

KINFRA Biotechnology Park is located in which state?

In Kerala.

How many biotechnology parks have been established in India so far?


Who discovered the super bug (Pseudomonas putida strain)?

Anand Mohan Chakraborty.

When was the National Board of Biotechnology established by the Government of India?

In 1982.

Where is the Center for Cell and Molecular Biology located?

 In Hyderabad.

Which was established by the United Nations Organization for Industrial Development (UNIDO) in New Delhi in 1983.

ICGEB (International Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology).

The nucleus of which cell was used in the manufacture of Doli clone?

The nucleus of the mammary cell of Finn Dorset sheep.

Where is the Indian Agricultural Research Institute located?

in New Delhi .

Where is the Indian Institute of Science located?

in Bangalore

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